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How To Make the Best Homemade Chocolate Ice Cream

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Good chocolate ice cream has contrasting allure. It's rich, cool, and creamy with dark roasted flavors only cocoa can impart. This chocolate ice cream is for the real die-hard chocolate-lovers in the group. It's sweet and malty, with the tiniest bitter tones to balance that sweetness. Almost right in the middle between dark chocolate and milk, it's the kind of chocolate ice cream that doesn't leave you wishing there was more chocolate in the mix or less.

After tasting and testing several chocolate ice cream recipes, I can firmly say this is the best one I've tried yet. For starters, this ice cream's base doesn't require tempering eggs with hot cream, so it's easier to make. It has not one but three types of chocolate, and it doesn't freeze up impossibly hard to scoop, thanks to a secret ingredient.

Interested in something else? Explore more of Kitchn!

Anything but Basic Chocolate Ice Cream

Here's what you need to know to knock this chocolate ice cream project out of the park,

  • Why a Philly-style ice cream base is best.
  • Which chocolates and cocoa to use and how to use them.
  • Tips for churning and freezing.
  • Bonus: The secret ingredient for smoother, softer ice cream.

What Is a Philly-Style Ice Cream?

Philly- or, more aptly, Philadelphia-style ice cream is made from cream, sugar, and flavoring. Often referred to as American-style ice cream, it isn't thickened with eggs like classic, custard-based ice creams so it has a lighter, cleaner flavor that shows off added ingredients without much interference. It lets the chocolate flavor come through without any eggy undertones. You get pure, dense chocolatey flavor through and through.

Read more: The 4 Essential Ice Cream Bases You Should Know

Choosing Chocolate for Chocolate Ice Cream

Plain and simple: For the best chocolate ice cream use the best chocolate you can find. Skip the chocolate chips or mass-market bars and choose a dark and a milk bar with the fewest ingredients you can find.

Chocolate bars like Hershey's have higher volumes of additives like sugar and cocoa butter, which will change the composition of the ice cream. Too much sugar and the ice cream won't freeze well, and too much cocoa butter will make for a grainy ice cream.

Which cocoa powder should I use?

The third chocolate boom-pow comes from the earthy richness of cocoa powder. Dutch-process is the best cocoa choice for making ice cream, as it has a darker, richer color and less acid.

How to Churn Chocolate Ice Cream

Your ice cream maker's bowl is in the freezer 24 hours before you started this recipe, right? Make sure it's fully frozen before proceeding. Many recipes call for chilling the ice cream base overnight before churning, but with a chocolate ice cream base you run the very likely risk of the chocolate becoming grainy in the base as it cools in the fridge. Instead, chill the chocolate base over an ice bath before churning and churn the base the same day you make it.

Oh, and don't be surprised if this chocolate base takes a little longer to start thickening in the ice cream maker — that's the nature of Philly-style ice creams.

The Secret Ingredient for Smoother, Softer Ice Cream

There are many "secret ingredients" for smooth and soft ice cream. Some folks love cornstarch, while others use cream cheese and even jelly or pectin for smooth ice cream. I think each of those ingredients has its own time and place, but for this chocolate ice cream, sweetened condensed milk is my secret ingredient of choice. It gives the ice cream an incredible malty flavor, but it also helps thicken and stabilize the ice cream base, keeping it smooth, soft, and scoopable.

Heat the dairy, cocoa, sugar, and sweetened condensed milk: Combine the milk, cream, sugar, condensed milk, and cocoa powder in a large saucepan. Bring to a simmer over medium-high heat, whisking occasionally until smooth. Simmer for 2 minutes, then remove from the heat.

Makes 1 quart

What You Need

Ingredients
4 ounces good-quality dark chocolate
2 ounces good-quality milk chocolate
2 cups whole milk
1 cup heavy cream
3/4 cup granulated sugar
1/4 cup sweetened condensed milk
3 tablespoons Dutch-process cocoa powder

Equipment
Measuring cups
Measuring spoons
Ice cream maker
Mixing bowls
Spatula
Small saucepan

Instructions

  1. Chill the ice cream bowl, if needed: If your ice cream machine has a bowl that needs to be frozen before churning, put it in the freezer the night before you plan to make ice cream. (If you forget, you can make the base and refrigerate it overnight while the bowl is freezing, and churn the ice cream the next day.) Fill a large bowl halfway with ice and water; set aside. Fit a fine-mesh strainer over a medium bowl; set aside. Straining is optional but makes for a super-smooth finished ice cream.
  2. Melt the chocolates: Place the milk and dark chocolates in a medium heatproof metal or glass bowl. Bring a large skillet of water to a boil. Turn off the heat and set the bowl in the water. Leave the chocolate to melt gently while you prepare the dairy.
  3. Heat the dairy, cocoa, sugar, and sweetened condensed milk: Combine the milk, cream, sugar, condensed milk, and cocoa powder in a large saucepan. Bring to a simmer over medium-high heat, whisking occasionally until smooth. Simmer for 2 minutes, then remove from the heat.
  4. Combine the chocolate and dairy mixture: Pour a ladleful of the hot dairy mixture into the melted chocolate and whisk, whisk, whisk. Add another ladleful and repeat until you've added half of the dairy mixture. Add the remaining dairy mixture and whisk to combine.
  5. Strain the base, if desired: Strain the ice cream base through the strainer. Set the bowl of ice cream base into the ice water bath, but make sure no water gets into the base.
  6. Chill the ice cream base completely: Leave the ice cream base on the ice water bath, stirring occasionally, until completely chilled, about 20 minutes.
  7. Churn the ice cream base: Transfer the ice cream base to the bowl of your ice cream machine. Churn until the base has thickened to a consistency somewhere between a very thick milkshake and soft-serve ice cream. In most ice cream makers, this takes about 20 minutes — check the instructions for your particular machine.
  8. Freeze until hardened, about 4 hours: Transfer the thickened ice cream to a freezer container. Press a piece of wax paper, parchment paper, or plastic wrap against the surface of the ice cream to prevent ice crystals from forming. Freeze until solid, at least 4 hours.

Recipe Notes

  • Storage: Store in an airtight container in the freezer for up to 2 weeks.
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delraymusicfestival

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rich diversity and Live music,

Del Ray Music Fest has always been a Celebration of local

talent, demonstrating what an exciting music community we have right here in the D.C. area.

Local Bands will perform on Two Stages from 3pm-8pm, In the heart of Del Ray. Del Ray's independently owned restaurants will host beer gardens Offering Great Food and Brews All Day. 

Del Ray Music Festival is proud to highlight local music and a chance to celebrate summer with your friends and neighbors.

As Always Del Ray Music Festival is A Free Event. www.Visitdelray.com

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Building of the Week: River Park

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Washington is home to myriad mid-century residential buildings by nationally known architects. The most unique among these is the River Park development, located on 4th Street SW between N and O Streets. Its aluminum details and barrel-roofed townhouses stand out in a sea of concrete and brick boxes.

When you approach the 1962 complex of townhouses and apartments, you're hit with the visual double whammy of curved roofs and shiny aluminum. Three-story townhouses with aluminum barrel roofs congregate around concrete courtyards, and to the east, the nine story apartments’ aluminum ornament glints in the sun. It’s hard to know where to look first.

The River Park development is composed of both apartments and townhouses. Image by the author.

Barrel roofs are most commonly seen in agricultural and industrial buildings. Perhaps because of this association, they do not evoke the elegance of a domed roof, like that of the Capitol or a medieval church. But unlike domes, barrel roofs can cover rectangular structures. They also feel novel when presented in an urban context and executed in metal.

Aluminum is a more common feature of urban architecture. The Empire State Building is the most notable example, using steel for its frame and ceiling. Today, many architects incorporate aluminum into their designs as a decorative feature or exterior cladding. This draws on Charles Goodman’s use of the material at River Park, where it was also used as ornament on the townhouses and apartments.

Architectural aluminum in Southwest was no accident: Reynolds Metals sponsored the project, hoping it would result in aluminum becoming the era’s preferred roofing material. Aluminum is one of the lightest weight metals employed for roofing, and more resistant to corrosion than steel. However aluminum never overtook steel in popularity, and both remain uncommon choices for residential architecture. Metal, especially aluminum, is expensive, liable to dent, and more difficult to modify than shingles.

Barrel-roofed townhouses. Image by the author.

Nonetheless, it is these two features of River Park that make the development noteworthy and exciting. Completed the same year that The Jetsons first aired, the buildings project a techno-cool image of modernity. Yet barrel roofs and extensive aluminum details never became mainstream; instead, River Park is a unique design in a sea of more representative mid-century modern housing.

Unlike Goodman’s own Alexandria home and his designs in Virginia Heights, the dwellings are not landmarks listed on the DC Inventory. However, the residences are the sort of place its inhabitants purchased because of, not in spite of, their designs. The DC Inventory is the city official list of historic sites that posses exceptional historic or architectural significance, and are thus protected against demolition. Developers' increased interest in Southwest may make the neighborhood a target for redevelopment — but the pride River Park's owners have in its distinctive character may help preserve the community.

Aluminum ornament detail on the apartments. Image by the author.

Redevelopment is not new for Southwest. River Park, and most of the residences and government offices that define its landscape, are the result of the nascent urban renewal movement of the 1950s. DC’s wholesale condemnation and demolition of the quadrant’s row houses was one of the first actions in a nationwide epidemic weaponizing the ideals of progress and safety to remove low income residents, especially African-Americans, from their homes.

Once a predominantly white area, by the 1950s, many longtime residents left swampy Southwest. Black residents remained, and more arrived as exclusionary covenants kept even wealthy families from having their pick of neighborhoods. Crowded with sanitary housing — working class housing that incorporated then-modern features like indoor plumbing — and alley dwellings, the city came to view the quadrant as an embarrassment. The Redevelopment Land Agency marked 96% of the houses obsolete or blighted, using few objective measures. Residents were evicted, row houses bulldozed, and a bevy of famed architects including I.M. Pei, Harry Weese, and Charles Goodman designed the sprawling mid-century landscape that remains. Yet River Park may have been one of the first desegregated housing complexes in Washington.

Some of the townhouses are accessible from the street. Image by the author.

Today these developments have aged into candidates for historic designation. This causes no shortage of controversy. In one sense the buildings represent the oppression of the 1950s and 1960s. Taken together, the meandering residences also demonstrate a style of city development that has fallen out of vogue. 

Yet this architecture can also serve as a reminder of what came before. Landmark nominations, like that of the Tiber Island apartments, focus on these very structures as emblematic of the era’s urban contradiction: exclusionary and aesthetically forward looking at the same time. A nomination to preserve some of the quadrant’s last remaining working class brick row houses is also pending.

In understanding these controversial buildings we can understand the neighborhood that preceded them and how it was dismantled. With the surge in popularity of mid-century design, there is more opportunity than ever to involve people in understanding how this part of Washington was built. Studying River Park and its contemporaries is an important way to appreciate interesting architecture in the present, but simultaneously ensure that though earlier Southwest is gone, it is not forgotten.

Townhouse detail. Image by the author.

Top image: The entrance to River Park, a gated community. Image by the author.

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Emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis — Bug of the Week

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EAB likely arrived in this country in packing material from Asia. In 2003 the first EAB tremor was felt in our region when the borer was detected in a nursery in Prince George’s County. This detection confirmed the suspicions and fears of many, namely, that the EAB could be transported and relocated with infested nursery stock. Ash trees infested with EAB were illegally shipped from an out-of-state quarantine zone to a Maryland nursery just south of Washington, DC in April, 2003. During the spring and summer beetles moved from infested Michigan-grown trees to ones grown in the nursery. Some of these trees were shipped and installed in several locations in the greater Washington, DC area.  Despite attempts to eradicate the beetle, it escaped quarantine zones in Prince George’s County and by 2015 it had arrived in Baltimore. According to the Maryland Department of Natural Resources, ash trees are the most common tree in Baltimore where the population stands at something north of 290,000 trees. Perhaps more disturbing is the fact that when the entire metropolitan area surrounding Baltimore is considered, the total population of ash exceeds 6 million trees. According to estimates by USDA the loss of ash trees in Baltimore could exceed $200 million dollars. 

Why are ash trees so valuable, especially in urban forests? Most people don’t appreciate the many benefits that accrue from trees in our cities and suburbs:

•By virtue of their shade and evapotranspiration, trees cool cities and the loss of this ecosystem service drives up summer cooling costs dramatically.

•Trees intercept rainfall, slowing its movement and allowing water to infiltrate the soil, thereby mitigating surface water runoff and protecting the Chesapeake Bay.

•Photosynthesis uses carbon dioxide as a raw material. Trees are vital for fixing carbon and removing it from the atmosphere, thereby helping to mitigate climate change.

•Trees in cities also remove pollutants from the air and help beautify our urban areas, adding significantly to property values.

•Recent studies demonstrate a link between the presence of urban trees and improved human health, including faster recovery times of patients in hospitals and reductions in rates of heart disease.

•Ashes are also a common native tree in watersheds in Maryland’s piedmont, where they provide shade and nutrients to our riparian and woodland ecosystems. Ashes provide food and shelter to more than 20 species of indigenous native creatures. Collectively, these organisms are valuable members of several ecological communities. They help the natural world go around. 

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Police release photos of ATV, dirt bike operators after chaotic ride at National Harbor

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Less than a week after nearly 100 dirt bikes and all-terrain vehicles caused chaos at National Harbor and downtown Washington by flooding streets and ripping across sidewalks, police released images of some riders suspected of operating the vehicles illegally.

The pictures, captured from surveillance cameras, cellphones and dashboard-camera video, will be the first wave of images police plan to release as they seek the public’s help in identifying the riders who roared through the Washington region Sunday.

“We need you to help us identify these individuals responsible for creating this malicious behavior down at the harbor,” Prince George’s County Police Deputy Chief George Nichols said.

The riders who choked the streets of National Harbor on Sunday rode against the flow of traffic, buzzed on sidewalks and wove in and out of traffic, police said. It’s the same group that was reportedly seen rolling through downtown Washington earlier in the evening.

D.C. police released on Friday 54 images related to the dirt-bike and ATV riders from the weekend.

D.C. Police Chief Peter Newsham at a news conference Friday termed the event “terrorizing” and “illegal and reckless” and said “the behavior is not going to go unchecked.”

Newsham said that his agency has gathered images from surveillance cameras and social media and “those efforts have paid off.”

D.C. police have arrested 21 people and recovered 10 ATVs and dirt bikes in connection with illegal rides this year, the department said.

[Dozens of illegal dirt bikes, ATVs choke the streets of National Harbor]

Police said they’ll be ramping up enforcement around National Harbor and around the county over the holiday weekend to avoid a repeat performance of rogue riders.

“We will have our aviation unit down here,” Deputy Chief Chris Murtha said. “They will be on standby to monitor and follow these ATVs should they decide to show up.”

Illegal dirt bikes and ATVs swarm downtown D.C. streets

A group riding dirt bikes and all-terrain vehicles descended on the streets of the Washington region on the night of June 25. A group riding dirt bikes and all-terrain vehicles descended on the streets of the Washington region on the night of June 25. (Facebook/Shawn Mehler)

(Facebook/Shawn Mehler)

At National Harbor on Friday, flashing signs around the area warned that authorities were enforcing rules banning off-road vehicles on public streets. The area boasts about 150 surveillance cameras to capture illegal activity, authorities said.

All-terrain vehicles are illegal to operate on public roads in Maryland and the District. But every summer, police in the Washington region have been battling swarms of joyriders who disrupt traffic. Enforcement against illegal riders is tricky for police, who for safety reasons don’t chase joyriders who often ignore attempted traffic stops.

“We’re not talking about individuals engaged in recreational behavior,” Nichols said. “We’re talking about people who are engaging in deliberate endangerment.”

A photo released by Prince George’s County police shows people accused of riding ATVs and dirt bikes in illegal ways in the Washington region on Sunday. (Prince George’s County Police Department)
The pictures, captured from surveillance cameras, cellphones and dashboard-camera video, will be the first wave of images police plan to release as they seek the public’s help in identifying the riders. (Prince George’s County Police Department)

In a separate incident, police are investigating the attempted robbery of a 17-year-old who was trying to sell his dirt bike via social media on Wednesday.

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The teenager, who legally owned the bike, had invited someone he believed to be a prospective buyer to his grandparent’s home for a sale. But when the person who responded to the ad arrived Wednesday night, he and two other men robbed the teen at gunpoint.

The men tried unsuccessfully to get the dirt bike into the back of a car before one of them simply hopped on the bike and sped off.

Police said they’re aggressively pursuing arrests in both the robbery and National Harbor incidents to send a message.

“We intend to change the culture of the ATV dirt-bike-riding folks in Prince George’s County,” Nichols said.

Police are asking anyone with information about individuals in the photos released or the illegal riding over the weekend to call D.C. at 202-727-9099 or Prince George’s at 1-866-411-TIPS (8477).


Nearly 100 dirt bikes and all-terrain vehicles caused chaos at National Harbor and downtown Washington by flooding streets and ripping across sidewalks, police said, and some photos, such as the one above, captured people allegedly involved. (Prince George’s County Police Department)
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Helping to Ensure the safety and effectiveness of sunscreens

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Theresa M. Michele, M.D., Director of FDA’s Center for Drug Evaluation and Research’s Division of Nonprescription Drug Products, discusses the changing pattern of sunscreen use and the need for additional safety data to support sunscreen active ingredients seeking to be included in the (currently stayed) over-the-counter (OTC) sunscreen monograph.

Theresa M. Michele, M.D.

Changing use of sunscreens

Sunscreens are extensively used by American consumers to help prevent sunburn, and certain sunscreens also help reduce the risk of skin cancer and premature skin aging caused by the sun when used as directed with other sun protection measures. When sunscreens first came on the market, they were used only occasionally at the beach and often as tanning aids. Now, many authorities including dermatology societies, the Surgeon General and FDA, encourage people of all ages, ethnicities, and complexions to use sunscreens liberally and reapply frequently whenever they are out in the sun. In fact, FDA and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention(CDC) recommend that consumers use broad-spectrum sunscreens with a sun protection factor (SPF) of 15 or more as directed and in conjunction with other sun-protective measures like seeking shade at peak hours and wearing protective clothing, hats, and sunglasses.

Evolving scientific knowledge

A number of scientific advances were responsible for the dramatic changes in sunscreen recommendations. Of course, the major discovery is that the sun actually causes radiation-induced damage to the skin. No less important is the knowledge that certain sunscreens—those that provide broad spectrum protection and an SPF value of 15 or more—can be an important tool for skin cancer prevention, when used as directed with other sun protection measures. In addition, there have been a number of technological advances in the formulation of sunscreens, allowing SPFs greater than 15 and greater broad-spectrum protection against ultraviolet rays (UV-A and UV-B rays). We've also learned, however, that sunscreen active ingredients may be absorbed through the skin, a significant discovery that needs to be considered when regulators evaluate the safety of long-term, regular sunscreen use.

Sunscreen regulation in the United States and abroad

Because sunscreens are intended for use to help prevent sunburn, and some are also labeled for use to decrease the risks of skin cancer and early skin aging caused by the sun when used as directed with other sun protection measures, they are regulated as drugs in the United States. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in sunscreen active ingredients that have been used in products marketed in European countries but that cannot be legally included in sunscreens marketed in the United States without an approved new drug application (NDA). In Europe, sunscreens are regulated as cosmetics, not as drugs, and there are different requirements for marketing in these countries.

FDA’s work to modernize sunscreen regulation

The changing pattern of sunscreen use and evolving scientific knowledge all prompted FDA to solicit input from external experts regarding our safety evaluation of sunscreen active ingredients not currently listed in the stayed final sunscreen monograph. In September 2014, we held a meeting of the Nonprescription Drug Advisory Committee to bring together medical and scientific experts from all parts of the field to help us determine the type and extent of safety testing we expect to be necessary for additional sunscreen active ingredients to be marketed under the OTC monograph system. At the meeting, FDA representatives explained that sunscreens should be viewed like any other nonprescription drug chronically administered to the skin, and laid out a proposed framework to describe the safety data we expect will be needed for these nonprescription sunscreen active ingredients to be marketed under the OTC monograph system. The advisory committee unanimously agreed that our proposed framework was a good starting point for sunscreen active ingredients. In fact, some committee members wanted us to go even further in terms of requesting additional data.

The Sunscreen Innovation Act

Shortly after the 2014 advisory committee meeting, Congress passed the SIA, creating a new process for the review of safety and effectiveness of nonprescription sunscreen active ingredients. FDA is currently using the SIA process to determine whether, and under what conditions of use, sunscreen products marketed in the United States may contain one or more of eight sunscreen active ingredients that are currently available more broadly in other countries but that can only be marketed in the United States with approved NDAs. To do so, FDA must review available scientific data for each active ingredient and conclude that the ingredient is generally recognized as safe and effective for nonprescription sunscreen use under a specified set of conditions. A misperception of the SIA is that it dictates exactly when and how fast sunscreens using these additional active ingredients will be available on the market without an NDA. The SIA gives FDA very specific timeframes for review of safety and effectiveness data once it is made available to the Agency, but these timelines are not triggered until a sponsor submits the necessary data. The SIA also does not change the safety and effectiveness standard that nonprescription sunscreen products marketed without approved NDAs must meet. We still must adhere to the scientific standards for evaluating the general recognition of safety and effectiveness of sunscreen products. FDA must rely on industry to provide adequate data to enable us to make positive general recognition of safety and effectiveness determinations.

During 2014 and 2015, FDA issued proposed sunscreen orders under the SIA for each of the active ingredients currently under consideration. In each case, FDA preliminarily determined that additional data are needed to support each active ingredient, and identified remaining data gaps for each active ingredient. To date, however, none of the recommended data has been submitted by active ingredient sponsors.

New guidance to address safety data gaps and other matters

As required by the SIA, today FDA is publishing two final guidances for industry pertaining to safety and effectiveness reviews for nonprescription sunscreen active ingredients evaluated under the SIA process. The first guidance describes FDA’s current thinking on the scientific testing needed to determine whether a sunscreen active ingredient is generally recognized as safe and effective for use in nonprescription sunscreens. The recommended studies are not novel and are consistent with our standard data requirements for NDA-approved topical drug products for chronic use. The second guidance is a procedural guidance describing the recommended content and format of the data submissions. Earlier this year FDA published two other SIA-required final guidances on other procedural aspects of the SIA process. All four final guidances reflect FDA’s consideration of public comments submitted on draft versions published in 2015.

As outlined in the final guidance on safety and effectiveness data, we are recommending skin safety studies to determine if products containing the active ingredient under review could cause irritation or rashes, or reactions when exposed to the sun. Because a sunscreen active ingredient must have a history of marketing—usually in other countries—to be considered under the SIA, there may be adverse event data available for the active ingredient, which we will also review. In addition, we are recommending studies to obtain pharmacology data in humans and animals to assess how much, if any, of the active ingredient is absorbed into the body when applied to skin. If the active ingredient is not absorbed above a specified amount, we ask for minimal data in terms of additional studies, such as looking at its effects on the skin of animals. If a sunscreen active ingredient is found to be absorbed past this minimal amount, then we will ask for additional animal data, including data concerning whether the active ingredient causes cancer, reproductive harm, or endocrine affects once it gets into the body.

For some time now, manufacturers have had to test the final formulation of each OTC sunscreen product for effectiveness, whether marketed under the monograph system or an NDA. For example, final formulation testing is required for sunscreens marketed under the OTC monograph system to establish the SPF provided by each final product. As described in more detail in the final guidance, we anticipate that additional safety-related final formulation testing may be necessary to establish that a sunscreen product, including its particular combination of active and inactive ingredients, is generally recognized as safe and effective . For this reason, the guidance describes the Agency’s current thinking about final formulation safety testing that we anticipate requiring in the future.

Next steps – going forward to ensure safety and effectiveness of sunscreens

FDA strongly recommends that consumers use broad-spectrum sunscreens with an SPF value of 15 or more in conjunction with other sun-protective measures, including staying out of the sun at peak times, seeking shade, and wearing protective clothing, hats, and sunglasses.

FDA encourages industry to take the final safety and effectiveness guidance into consideration as they work on studies to address the safety data gaps for each of their sunscreen active ingredients being evaluated under the SIA. We also encourage sponsors to come in and talk to us so that we can address any questions they may have regarding these studies or the guidances.

We recognize that sunscreens are used very broadly by the whole population, even on children as young as 6 months of age. FDA will continue to work with industry and public health stakeholders to help ensure that the sunscreens consumers use on themselves and their families are safe and effective for daily use over a lifetime in all different populations. Recognizing the public health benefits of sunscreen use, we are committed to doing our part to provide American consumers with additional options for safe and effective sunscreen ingredients.

###

Dr. Michele joined FDA in 2007 as a medical officer in CDER’s Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Rheumatology Products. She currently serves as Director of CDER’s Division of Nonprescription Drug Products. Dr. Michele received her medical degree at Northeastern Ohio Universities College of Medicine and completed her residency at the Osler Medical Service at the Johns Hopkins University Hospital, as well as a fellowship in pulmonary and critical care medicine at Johns Hopkins. Before coming to FDA, she worked in the pharmaceutical industry as a leader in clinical aspects of drug development planning and implementation, covering pulmonary medicine and several other therapeutic areas.

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